Glossary
The encyclopedia of the tourist

C
Cape Light (Ak-Bulun)
Caves
Chaar-Tash
Chachykei (Black Stone)
Chatkal, river
Chatkal valley
Chatkal ridge
Chatyr-Kul, lake
Chelpek
Chet-Baisoorun
Chichkan
Chigu (Sary-Bulun)
Chil-Mairam
Chil-Ustun, cave
Chim-Tash
Chok-Tal
Chokmorov Suimenkul
Cholpon-Ata, town
Cholpon-Ata, petrogliphs
Cholpon-Ata, sanatorium
Chon-Ak-Suu
Chon-Chunkur, cave
Chon-Kemin
Chon-Kemin, natural park
Chon-Koi-Suu gorge
Chon-Kyzyl-Suu
Chon-Sary-Oi

Chon-Tash
Chon-Tuz, sanatorium
Chu, river
Chu valley
Chuikov Semen
Chunkurchak (Chon-Kurchak)
Chyrpykty
Climate
Cuisine
Culture Kyrgyzstan


Cape Light (Ak-Bulun). Kurmenty village, Issyk-Kul. This area is known for more than 16 centuries as the burial place of St. Matthew. It is assumed that under the waters of the Gulf is where Nestorian monastery of the X century located. Catalan map of the world, dating from 1375 shows that on the northern shore of Issyk-Kul lake is a building with a cross, next to which an inscription is: “A place called Issikol (Issyk-Kul). This is the place of the brothers of Armenian monastery, where the body of St. Matthew, Apostle and Evangelist dwells"- P.P. Semenov - Tian-Shan, who studied the Catalan map, believed that the monastery was in the Kurmenty bay - between the villages of Ak-Bulun and Tyup.
In 1888, by order of Russian Tsar Alexander III, a monastery was built in their place, which was destroyed in 1916 during the uprising. In the place of this monastery are now Agriculture-Technical School and "Meerim Bulagy" orphanage. A monastic mill and the building of the monastery church are still preserved and used for civilian purposes. Top

Chaar-Tash petroglyphs. In the mountains that flank Ketmen-Tube valley, Chaar-Tash - "speckled stone" birthplace stands out there, which was discovered by I. Kozhomberdiev in 1970. There are about 1,000 pictures counted there of different subjects primarily related to the nomadic way of life of Ketmen-Tube settlement and its surrounding regions. Chaar-Tash is one of the biggest "art galleries" in the north-western Tien-Shan, and is apparently, one of the shrines of ancient tribes who lived in the area in the I century BC. Top

Chachykei (Black Stone). Keng Kol Mountain. Talas region. Talas. No guardian. Type of mazar – stone. This very stone is described in the “The Manas Encyclopedia” as “Chachykei’din chaty” as follows: “Woman’s footprint on the stone. On Ken Kol River, further south than Ochoi’, near the shallows of the river, there is a two-three tons heavy, red stone flat on the top. The water has been grinding the face of the stone for centuries, and despite the deep penetration of water into the stone, it looks as if a deep footprint of a barefooted woman has been imprinted into newly dried white clay”. Top

Chatkal river. It is 223 km long and has a basin area of 7110 km². It originates in the south-western slopes of the Talas Alatau range. In the upper course, the river flows in a broad valley with steep slopes, below the confluence of the river Ters - in a deep gorge. The nutrition comes mostly from snow. Average consumption of water near the mouth is 122 m³/sec, with a maximum of 920 m³/sec. Top

Chatkal valley. It is located in the upper reaches of the river Chatkal, in the western Tien Shan, between Pskem and Sandalash ridge on the north-west and Chatkal ridge on the south-east, bounded by Talas Alatau from the north. Its height begins from 1000 m at the bottom up to 2500 m at the top. The width of the valley is from 30 to 50 km, stretching from southwest to northeast for 150 km. The valley is formed by the river Chatkal. The vegetation is rich and varied. At the bottom and on the slopes there are fields, forests of walnut and juniper and mountain pastures. The Chatkal basin is an isolated area. The climate is continental with sharp fluctuations in temperature within the seasons and during the day. The annual precipitation is 440 mm, the annual maximum precipitation occurs in March and the minimum is in August-September. Snow settles from November to March. This is one of the snowiest regions in Kyrgyzstan. There are historic monuments on this territory, they include Chancharhan, Kelbeskhan Idris Paygambar mazar and others. West of the valley is the Besh-Aral reserve. There is a Chatkal peak here with a height of 4503 m. There is a paved road laid throughout from the valley through the Kara-Bura pass into the Talas valley. Top

Chatkal ridge. Jalal-Abad region. It is a mountain ridge in the western Tien Shan, which bounds Fergana valley from the north-west. It is about 200 km long and at an altitude over 3000 meters. The southern slope of the ridge has a width, from the ridge to the foot, of 35-50 km. The northern slope stretches for 12 - 18 km from the watershed ridge to the river Chatkal. The fall of the valleys of the northern slope is steep, whereas the southern is more flat. In the sources of some rivers, small glaciers still remain. The eastern part of Chatkal ridge, is crowned by jagged, sharply defined ridges, with a separate set of spiky peaks (the highest of the peaks has an altitude of 4563 m). In the north-western and south-western slopes of the ridge is Chatkal State Biosphere Reserve. In the south-eastern slope of the ridge is the Sary-Chelek State Biosphere Reserve, which has the status of Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO since 1979. There is a also famous lake Sary-Chelek within the territory of the reserve. Top

Chatyr-Kul, lake (3530 m, Chatyr-Kel from kyrgyz means "Heaven Lake"). It is the third largest in the Central Tien-Shan. It is 11 km wide, 23 km long and 20.4 metres deep. The surface area of the lake is 153.5 km² with the volume of water - 610 million m³. Chatyr-Kul lake has been given a status of a wetland of international importance. It is an endorheic lake, where the water is brackish. It lies in the lowest part of Chatyr-Kul basin and is located between the ridges of At-Bashi and Torugart-Too, close to Torugart pass, leading to China. The relief of the lake is slightly dissected into lake-river accumulative plain. In the south-eastern part of the lake shore it is mainly marshy, and in the north it is rocky. The climate in Chatyr-Kul basin is sharply continental. Average annual air temperature is negative (-5,6° C), with minimum temperatures in the winter of up to -50° C. The maximum temperature in the summer is +24° C. Average rainfall is low, between 208-269 mm, of which 80-90% during the summer. Water lakes are low salinity water within 0.5-1 mg/l. The water temperature in July and August range from 6-16° C. The lake water is characterised by a significant lack of oxygen, especially at a depth of 10 m. Apparently, this is due to the lack of fish fauna of the lake, yet the naked osman and marinka (schizothorax fish) are habituating there. In the summer, the lake turns into a "rookery". Mountain geese and ducks flock here. In the gorges, there are roe, marten, lynx, wild boars and porcupines. Top

Chelpek. A village South of Karakol where a number of artifacts (the «Chelpek treasure»), dating from the time of the Saks (including an altar table in the shape of a woman (a priestess?). Top

Chet-Baisoorun, canyon. Just above the village of Ananyevo, at the foot of an 18 kilometer canyon, lies the hamlet of Chet-Baisoorun. Top

Chichkan gorge ("mouse" in Kyrgyz). This picturesque Chichkan gorge is located on a highway of Bishkek - Osh, between Suusamyr and Toktogul reservoir. The road gradually descends from the Ala-Bel pass (3184 m), from where Chichkan gorge begins. The slopes of the gorge are covered with Tien-Shan spruce, juniper, wild barberry bushes and brambles. At the bottom of Chichkan gorge runs rough mountain river of the same name. The river flows into the Toktogul reservoir in the west from the town of Toktogul. In the upper reaches of the river is a hunting reserve, where the following animals are protected - ibex, roe deer, wild boar, wild rams, bears, lynx, leopard.
Upstream of It-Agar river, of the right Chichkan tributary is a gallery of pictures. In the upper reaches of Muztor valley, of the It-Agar tributary, there are two lakes located there. Upper lake is located at an altitude of 3317 metres, surrounded by glaciers. The flow of water from the lake falls down off a 60-metre granite rock and in 2 km flows into moraine-dammed Muztor lake, located at an altitude of 3000 m. Top

Chigu (Sary-Bulun) settlement. On the southern shore of Tyup gulf, between villages of Sary-Bulun and Yntymak, in the widest part of the gulf, where it flows into the lake, on the assumption of historians, is where an ancient town Chigu is located - one of the oldest cities in the Issyk-Kul. In the II century BC, Usun tribes occupied the valleys of Tien-Shan, and their supreme leader took the old rate of Saks in the Issyk-Kul. The Chinese sources, people are called "Chiguchen" - which means "City of the red valley". Chigu, after the collapse of the Usun government, soon went under the water of the Issyk-Kul. Archaeologists managed to gather a fairly solid collection of artefacts, which give an idea of the life of the inhabitants of this city, their activities and daily life. All the items were under the water and got covered with lime and built-up of salt. The finds in Chigu include items made of stone, ceramic, metal products, handicrafts made of horn. Top

Chil-Mairam. There area lot of caves not far from Osh airport in the east of the mountains of Chil-Mairam. Top

Chim-Tash. In the mountains to the South West of Talas, South of Leninpol, is the river Urmaral - and here are some petroglyphs dating from the 7th to the 6th century BC. Further, near the border with Djalal-Abad region are the petroglyphs of Chim-Tash, dating from the 6th to the 8th centuries.Top

Chok-Tal, gorge. Issyk-Kul. It is located north of the Chok-Tal village. On the plains' part, there is a medieval settlement (IX-XV centuries) and parking of a Stone Age. In the coastal area of Issyk-Kul lake, near the Chok-Tal village, it is possible to see some fragments from a boat of the flooded settlement of XII-XV centuries. In the mid mountain area, it is possible to observe the large stones depicting hunting scenes, rituals, ancient animal figures carved out of more than two thousand years ago; medieval burial mounds (VII-VIII centuries); stone sculptures (VI-VIII centuries). The path to the glaciers and snowfields runs along the river Chok-Tal. One can go down into the valleys of Orto-Koi-Suu and Chon-Kemin through Kok-Oirok path (3931 m). Top of the ridge is crowned with a white quadriceps massif of Chok-Tal (4771 m) - the highest peak of Kungei Ala-Too. From the Chok-Tal gorge to Chon-Uryukty is the highest and most snow-covered part of Kungei, deeply cut through by the gorges of Chon-Koisu, Cholpon-Ata, Chon-Aksu, Aksu, Baysorun and Chon-Uryukty rivers. From a distance, the wall of the ridge looks steep and completely inaccessible. Top

Chokmorov Suimenkul (1939-1992) - actor and artist, national artist of the USSR. In 1964, he graduated from the Academy of Arts in Leningrad. In the years of 1964-1967, he was a teacher of painting and composition at Frunze Art School. He was in the film industry since 1969. He acted in 20 films: "Jamila", "Seventh Bullet", "Scarlet poppies of Issyk-Kul", "Fierce", "Red Apple", "Ulan", "Men Without Women", etc. Suimenkul died on 26 September, 1992 on his 53-year of life. Chokmorov had a polycystic, rare case. He had one kidney missing from birth. Instead of the second one, he had a lot of kidneys, which functioned, but a cartilage has formed between them. Suimenkul was unable to get up until his fifteen's birthday. He started to walk only at sixteen. He then had an incredible rise. In 2006, a stamp was released dedicated to Chokmorov. In 2009, a 5000 som banknote was released with a portrait of S. Chokmorov. A street was named after him in the city of Bishkek. Top

Chon-Ak-Suu (Grigorievskoe), gorge. Length - 35 km. Chon-Ak-Suu is considered to be one of the most picturesque in the Issyk-Kul region. It descends from the Kungei Ala-Too to the village Grigorievka. In the middle of the gorge there are two snow-capped peaks: Kum-Bel (4200 m) and Eshenbulak (4647 m). In the zone of eternal snow there is Ak-Suu pass (4012 m), which leads to the upper reaches of the river Chon-Kemin and Jassyl-Kel Lake, and we can get the city of Almaty (Kazakhstan) through the pass Ozerniy (3507 m) from it.
Jassyl-Kel is a small but a beautiful lake. Its water is blue and it changes colors depending on lighting. Lakeside in the summer is a favorite tourist destination for traveling on the Northern Tien-Shan.
A view of the pearly-blue surface of Lake Issyk-Kul and the main peak in the area - the peak of Soviet Topography (4530 m) opens from Ak-Suu pass. This area is the foundation of the glacial ridge. Most of the glaciers are in the basin of the river Chon-Ak-Suu (52 glaciers with total area of 65.6 km ²). The largest glacier of the same name has an area of 8.1 km ², length 6.1 km.
There are three alpine moraine lakes in the gorge. In the first part of the valley Nizhnee, in the upper half of the valley, in the tract of At-Jailoo there is a lake Srednee and lake Verhnee is 6 kilometers from it and it is the most beautiful among them. The forest zone behind it comes to an end and alpine meadows begin, situated mostly at an altitude of 3,000 and 3,500 m.
On the banks of the river there are steep rocky slopes, with wild sea buckthorn, raspberries and a large black barberry. The green valley in a silver frame of the glaciers, burial hills (VII cent. BC) Schrenk spruce up to 50 m, the steep cliffs covered with brown and green moss are the unique natural objects..
From late June to late September the yurts gather together there, offering various services,. You can also ride on horseback, to see demonstrations of handicraft art and the art of horse riding, listen to folk music, drink kymyz and taste the national cuisine.
Ak-Suu gorge can be reached from Chon-Ak-Suu (Semenov) gorge through the Keck-Bel pass. Top

Chon-Kemin. One hundred and fifty kilometers from Bishkek lies the valley of Chon-Kemin. This valley is most famous for being the birthplace of Askar Akayev. There is a small museum dedicated to him here.
There are other attractions, however. This long valley lies at altitudes of between 1400 m and 2800 m above sea level and reaches over 80 km deep into the mountains between the Kungey Ala-Too and Zailii ranges, parallel to the Kazakh border. It has verdant pastures, woodland (of Tian-Shan firs), mountain lakes (jamalysh, Kogor,Tor, Almaty and Kichi-Kemin amongst them) and spectacular views of the mountains (for example: Kichi-Kemin - 4220m; Alisher Novoi - 4170 m and Teke Tor - 4190 m.
The valley has a rich variety of vegetation, and animal life, and boasts both a Zoological preserve (with partridges, gold pheasant, hare,wild boar and mountain sheep) and a botanical reserve (Kapchagai - which is home to ephedra - horsetail). The conifer forests which line the mountains which form the sides of the valley are reknowned throught out the country and are home to many varieties of mushrooms, berries and herbs.
Manas is supposed to have held games here and near the village of Kyzyl-Bairak is a mausoleum dedicated to Shabidan Baitir, a 19th century chieftain of the Sary-Bagysh tribe who ruled the valley and is highly regarded as a national hero. There is also a statue of him on horseback in the main square in the town of Kemin.
There are several ancient barrows (burial mounds) in the valley at Tegirmenty and Shabdan. Those near the village of Shabdan, date from the 4th and 3rd century BC and arcaeologists have discovered the remains of the ancient settlement of Suyab, dating between the 6th and 11th centuries AD near the mouth of the valley.
There are several possibilities for trekking in the valley. One route runs over the mountains towards Balykchi on the shores of Lake Issyk-Kul, and others lead up towards the valleys of Griorievka and Semyenovka.
The Chon-Kemin valley also offers a venue for white-water rafting and fishing. Top

Chon-Koi-Suu gorge. A beautiful place with huge pine trees, meadows with flowers, alpine meadows, steep cliffs and eternal glaciers. There are numerous waterfalls and rivers that leave a lasting impression!There are petroglyphs in this gorge. To get to the gorge, is to turn north from the village of Sary-Oi, the northern shore of Issyk-Kul lake. Top

Chon-Kyzyl-Suu, gorge. The river Chon-Kyzyl-Suu (big red water) has its way here. The river has got this name because of its water, blurring red sandstone, become dull red. The gorge is located 40 km west of Karakol, near the village of Kyzyl-Suu. It includes the coast of the peninsula in the Kara-Bulun and the gorges Chon-Kyzyl-Suu (40 km) and Kichik-Kyzyl-Suu (30 km).
Coast of the peninsula is covered with dense thickets of shrubs, and has a large number of pheasants. Lake front is a place of gathering of a variety of waterfowl, most of them come here to spend winter. There are several sources of thermal mineral waters on the peninsula of Kara-Bulun.
Chon-Kyzyl-Suu is very beautiful. A dense forest begins at an altitude of 2000, with a lot of mushrooms and berries (barberry, rose, buckthorn, honeysuckle, wild strawberries, mountain ash, etc.). On the eastern slopes of the Chon-Kyzyl-Suu on the right inflow Dzhyly-Suu of the river Chon-Kyzyl-Suu, there are outcrops of hot springs sources of hydrogen sulfide Dzhyly-Suu with water temperature abound 43 degrees. In a distant southeast corner of Chon-Kyzyl-Suu gorge you can find the western peak Armstrong.
In the upper right tributary of the Archa-Tor there is a mountain pass leading to the gorge Jeti-Oguz. Six landscape zones alternate with each other as the ascent to the upper reaches of the gorge and to the locking ridge with the height of 4500 m. The soft mountain-sea climate makes it possible to use the Chon-Kyzyl-Suu for tourism in all seasons. There are the following animals such as roe deer, boars, marmots, ulary, partridges, pheasants as well as ibex, argali, snow leopard and the huge vultures.
There are scenic mountain passes in the upper Chon-Kyzyl-Suu: Ashuu-Tor (3900 m), leading to syrty Central Tien-Shan, 50 years to Kyrgyzstan (4600 m), Ulyanovsk (4490 m), Hope (4450 m) and Riddle ( 4400 m), the road to the glacier Kolpakovsky goes through it, it is the largest glacier in Terskey Ala-Too. Its length is 13 kilometers. You can reach the gorge Jeti-Oguz and Asantukum through the starboard side of the Kok-Bel. You can make a trip to the gorge Kichik-Kyzyl-Suu along the wooded slopes of the left side of Chon-Kyzyl-Suu at an altitude of 2200 meters. The waterfalls are of great interest for the tourists. Sharkyratma of 20 meters high is in a narrow gorge, surrounded by woods. Shatyly is a cascade of waterfalls of 100 m high in the forest area on the second right tributary of the Chon-Kyzyl-Suu. Top

Chon-Sary-Oi, a resort town. Issyk-Kul. It is 12 km west of Cholpon-Ata. Outside the village to the north-east, there is an abundance of boulders and large rocks with petroglyphs, burial mounds, stone mounds, many of which have ring displays on them.
Petroglyphs in large numbers, just like a large gallery, located on the chains of boulders, stretching from north to south. Top

Chon-Tash. A short distance outside Bishkek is Chon-Tash - now a popular tourist resort for people from the city. 1991 saw the televised excavation of a mass grave of some of the victims of Stalinist repression. Diggers discovered a 4×4×4 chamber, 40 cm below ground, containing some 137 (or 138 according to some sources) skeletons, some complete with personal effects/papers - It is thought that the entire Supreme Soviet Central Committee of the Republic of 1937 - plus a few other important individuals including Torokul Aitmatov (father of the Kyrgyz author Chinghiz Aitmatov) were murdered here by the KGB over two nights. The bodies have since been moved 100 m to the «Ata Beyit» cemetery («The cemetery of the fathers»). Chinghiz Aitmatov paid for the transfer. The discovery was made because, although the KGB swore the caretaker to secrecy, he told his daughter on his deathbed in the 1980s. After independence she came forward to tell the story. Top

Chu, river. The total length of it is 1067 km, 221 km of which travels through the territory of Kyrgyzstan. The basin area is 67.5 km² - 22 thousand km² is within Kyrgyzstan. It is formed at the confluence of Zhoon-Aryk and Kara-Kuzhur rivers, originating from glaciers in Terskey Ala-Too and the Kyrgyz Ala-Too. Below its confluence, river Chu flows through the Issyk-Kul basin, west of Issyk-Kul lake. In high water, on the sleeve of Kutemaldy, part of runoff of the river Chu is dumped into the lake. The river exits onto the Chu valley through Boom gorge, where numerous tributaries run down from surrounding mountains. In the lower parts, it crosses Muyunkum desert and is lost in the desert sands of Betpak-Dala (Kazakhstan). The nutrition of the river is glacial-snow, and there is an important role of the groundwater flow. An average water consumption after confluence with Chon-Kemin river is 53 m³/seconds, and on the border with Kazakhstan it is 71 m³/seconds. The largest stock is in July - August. Most of the flow of the river Chu represents a boundary between Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. The main tributaries: on the right - Chon-Kemin, Kichi-Kemin; on the left - Kegety, Issyk-Ata, Alamedin Ala-Archa, Ak-Suu, Kara-Balta. There is Ortokoi reservoir located on the river Chu, three dams. Fifty five percent of the water flow is consumed by irrigation. Top

Chu valley - part of the valley of Chu river is in its middle reaches, from the Boom gorge to the eastern edge of the Moyunkum sands, bounded by Chu-plyisky mountains and Kyrgyz Ala-Too. The eastern part (before the river Aspar) is within Kyrgyzstan, and the rest is on the territory of Kazakhstan. The length is about 250 km, width of 10-15 km to the south-east and 100 km north-west. The altitude is 500-1300 m. The climate is continental, with hot dry summers and moderately cold winters. Precipitation is 250-500 mm per year, falls mainly in the spring. There is a frost-free period of 180 days. The main waterway is the river Chu. The valley is rich in groundwater. Natural landscapes include deserts, semi-desert and dry steppe on the grey soil and grey-burgundy soils - highly converted, in irrigated areas as cultural landscape. The valley is cut through with a complex system of irrigation canals creating ponds and numerous reservoirs. This is the most densely populated part of Kyrgyzstan with the developed industrial and agricultural production. The main crops of agriculture: sugar beet, cereals, fodder and vegetables. The main branches of livestock: cattle, pigs, poultry and sheep. Top

Chuikov, Semen Afanasevich (1902-1980) - Soviet painter. He was born in Pishpek (Bishkek). His father served as a military clerk. In 1924-1930, he studied in the studio of R.R. Falk. In the early 30's, he initiated an organisation of the Kyrgyz Union of Artists and the Kyrgyz Museum of Fine Arts in Frunze (Bishkek). Building on the traditions of Russian realistic art, Chuikov developed Kyrgyz national theme. In the genre and landscape painting, he showed the life of people and the nature of Kyrgyzstan. He died in Moscow on 18 May 1980. He was a national artist of the USSR (1963). He was a winner of two Stalin Prizes (1949, 1951). Also, a member of the Academy of Artists (1958). He was awarded two Orders of the Red Banner, two Orders of the "Badge of Honour", the Order of Cyril and Methodius of I degree. His works are in the State Tretyakov Gallery (Moscow), the State Russian Museum (St. Petersburg), the Kyrgyz National Museum of Fine Arts, G.A. Aitiev (Bishkek), Krasnoyarsk State Art Museum of V.I. Surikov (Krasnoyarsk). Top

Chunkurchak (Chon-Kurchak) gorge. It is located at the beginning of Alamedin gorge, 30 km from Bishkek. There are two large basins in this gorge: Lower and Upper Tatyr, which are connected by a narrow canyon - gorge of Dunguretme river. Rocks, vary in height from 100 to 200 metres, almost vertically going up. A raging river occupies almost all of the narrow part. Initially, the gorge is very narrow, rocky, and gradually expanding to form a spacious valley of Upper Tatyr with smooth rounded slopes. Past the dark gorge is a stunning view of the bright broad upper valley with a panoramic view of snow-white mountains in the background. There is an unusual and a beautiful waterfall, Koguchkon-Sugat, in the gorge, better known as "Pigeon's watering hole", which is 26 metres high. There are several waterfalls cascading downstream. The gorge is famous for its rocky formations and is one of the most popular places for rock climbing on a natural terrain. There are prepared climbing routes. There are fixed points for the organisation of the top insurance, where jumper tracks are punched through. Dry-tooling competitions take place there. Top

Chyrpykty village. Issyk-Kul. Between the village of Chyrpykty and the Kungey Ala-Too ridge, on many boulders there are petroglyphs, which represent drawings of humans and animals (goats, deer, camels, horses). There are also about 200 mounds of stone and stone-earthen mounds located there. The burials belong to the Saks-Usun culture. Top

Kyrgyzstan travel