Reserves of Kyrgyzstan
order to save precious natural resources that Kyrgyz Republic possesses,
there were 83 special reserves developed, total area of which comprised
of 761,300 hectares, which are accounted for nearly 4.45% of the Kyrgyzstan’s
- 10 national parks (288,000 hectares)
- 10 state natural national parks (276,000 hectares)
- 10 forest reserves, 23 botanical, 18 geological, 2 complex and 14
game (zoological) reserves with a total area of 325,000 hectares.
In accordance with classification, there are four categories of specifically
protected natural territories:
Category I - State Reserves, which are fully exempt from the
economic activities of mankind. Fishing, hunting and gathering of all kinds
of plants is prohibited.
Besh-Aral State Reserve
Issyk-Kul State Reserve
Karatal-Zhapyryksky State Reserve
Kulunatinsky State Reserve
Naryn State Reserve
Padysha-Ata State Reserve
Sary-Chelek Biosphere Reserve
Sarychat-Ertash State Reserve
Surmatash State Reserve
Biosphere territory “Issyk-Kul”
Category II - State National Natural Parks. They have the following
objectives: conservation of landscapes, water objects, flora and fauna,
historical and cultural monuments, creation of conditions for tourism and
Category III - Monuments of nature or geological reserves
cave. Near Naryn town.
2. Azhidar-Unkur cave. Osh region, Nookat district. Its
depth is up to 150 m.
3. Chil-Ustun and Chil-Mairam caves. Osh region, Aravan
district. Objects with ancient writing.
4. Big Barite cave. Osh region, Nookat district.
An object with a peculiar pattern of barite deposits. Its depth is 60 m.
5. Dzhiydeli cave. Batken region, Kadamjai district.
Unique natural object with a large variety of crystalline forms
of entities. Its total length is 180 m.
6. Sogon-Tash cave. Limestone cave with interesting stalactites
waterfall. Osh region, Nookat district. It is a picturesque
waterfall in the Palaeozoic lime stones.
waterfall. Issyk-Kul region, Jeti-Oguz district. A picturesque
waterfall in the spruce forests.
waterfall. Chui region, Issyk-Ata district. A cascade of three
waterfalls with a height of 12 m.
10. Koguchken Sugat waterfall. Chui region, Alamedin
district. The height of it is approximately 35 m.
11. Tegerek waterfall. It is up to 20 m.
12. Dungy canyon. Osh, Nookat district. A place with
an original form of relief.
13. Kok-Dzherty canyon. Naryn region, Tien Shan district.
Scenic areas along the canyons of Son-Kul and Kazhyrty.
14. At-Bashi canyon. Naryn region, At-Bashy district.
Original relief shapes on the red-colored peneplain.
rocks. Unique geomorphologic formation - rocks are of red conglomerate.
rocks. Jalal-Abad region, Aksy district. It is a rare geomorphologic
formation, where pillars are of red sandstone.
17. Suleiman mountain. It is near Osh town. Geomorphologic
formation with ancient historical monuments.
18. Kan-I-Gut mine. Batken region, Batken district. An
old silver-lead mine.
Category IV - Reserves that are created for the protection of
the individual components of natural systems.
|11 - Dashman, Uzun - Akmat, Kichi
| Hunting (Zoological)
|16 - Chichkan, Belogorka, Tyup, Ak-Buura,
Kochkorka, Teploklyuchenka, Jeti-Oguz
|23 - Min-Kush, Sulyukta, Kyrgyz-Ata,
Chatkal, Tyup, Chon-Aryk, Chunkurchak, Aigul-Tasha mountain, Baidamtal and
| Complex reserves
|2 - Ak-Suu, Talas
Teploklyuchensky Reserve (1958) covers an area of 29,000 hectares
in the basin of Arashan river. It was created to protect the habitat of
snow leopard, Turkestan lynx, white-clawed bear and eagle nesting sites,
bearded vulture, kumai, saker, as well as many other valuable breeds of game
Jeti-Oguz Reserve was created in 1958 in the same named basin
with an area of 30,000 hectares. It was created to protect beautiful natural
complexes near famous resort. The following are protected here - snow leopard,
white-clawed bear and birds of prey, which are all also in the Red Book
of the Republic. There are also commercial species here: Tolai hare, marmot,
fox, wolf, stone marten, weasel, mountain goat, roe deer, wild boar, snow
pheasant and partridge.
Tyup Game Reserve was established in the headwaters of Tyup
and Karkar rivers in 1975. Snow leopard and lynx are protected on this
territory. It is also possible to find the following animals deer, mountain
sheep, ibis bill and rare birds of prey.
All hunting reserves occupy large areas of the upper gorges of the
forest belt to the glacial-nival zone and protect the predominantly commercial
species of animals.
On the shore of Issyk-Kul near Chon-Uryukty and Sary-Bulak villages,
there were two entomological reserves developed in 1985 to protect brood
locations of rare species of insects.
In Botanical Reserve of Baidamtal, plant communities of the
desert landscape of western Issyk-Kul region including Siberian anthrax
and Nitraria Schober are under protection.
In Tyup Botanical Reserve, which is located in the same-named
river basin, is the Cossack, creeping juniper (Jniperus Sabina) protected
on this site.
In Small Ak-Suu Reserve - the subjects of protection include
spruce forests in the same-named river basin.
The valley has botanical objects that are in dire need of conservation
mode. These are Nitrariaceae shrubs on the sand-dunes near Balykchy; also
Besh-Aral State Reserve. It is located on
south-western part of Chatkal valley in Chatkal region, Jalal-Abad district,
on the north-western slope on Chatkal mountains. There are many kinds
of animals and plants in this zone. In 1979, there was a state reserve
formed, Besh-Aral, in order to protect unique natural wealth of Besh-Aral,
and therefore their economic activity continued uninterrupted. It was re-organised
again on 1 August, 1994. Its area is 112,018 hectares. The area of this
reserve covers from 1.000 m up to 4,000 m above sea level. Its relief is
complex, hilly and rocky. It deeps down into the valley and mountain-cut
gorges, which are characterised by steep slopes. Main rivers include Chatkal
and its left tributary, Ters.
Climate is sharply continental. Annual rainfall is around 500-700 mm;
in the lower reaches of the river Ters, it is around 250 mm. The most warm
months are July and August, average monthly temperature of July is +16
- +20 Celsius. The most driest months are August and September.
There are meadow and steppe vegetation widely distributed within this
reserve. It covers more than 1,500 kinds of plants, 30 of which are in the
Red Book of former USSR; they include arum Korolkova, Pskem onion, Eremurus
Illarai, Kaufman tulip, euonymus Koopman, etc. Many kinds of food, medicinal,
tannins, aromatic and honey plants are economically valuable plant species.
This reserve is the habitat of western Tien Shan endemic - Menzbir
marmot, listed in the Red Book of the International Union for Conservation
of Nature, which can only be found here and nowhere else on the planet.
There is also a varied fauna. There are 46 mammal species and 150 bird
species protected within this reserve. It is home to mountain goats, deer,
fox, badger, wolf, Tien-Shan brown bear and leopard. Birds include eagle,
peregrine falcon, saker falcon, etc. Most of the above animals are in
the Red Book of Kyrgyzstan. Top
Issyk-Kul State Reserve. It was established
in 1948 to preserve the wetland and ethnological systems of Issyk-Kul lake.
This reserve consists of 12 separate sections of the total area of 19,661
hectares. It covers isolated areas within 2 km of coastline and waters of
the lake. The goal is to protect waterfowl (swans, red-crested pochard, mallard,
coot, Grey Goose, etc), coastal flora and fauna, as well as fishing control.
In addition to this, this lake is the place of rest and feeding for migratory
waterfowl bird species in the spring and autumn. There are 11 bird and
13 insect species listed in the Red Book of Kyrgyzstan under the protection
of the reserve. This reserve together with the Issyk-Kul lake are both in
the Ramsar List. Top
Karatal-Zhapyryksky State Reserve. It was
organised in 1994. It occupies an area of 14,000 hectares. It is located
on the territories of Naryn and Ak-Talin regions of Naryn district in
the south of Son-Kul lake, south-eastern part of Korgoo range in the basin
of Kara-Tal and Zhapyryk rivers (which act as the right constituencies
of Kazhyrty river), 16 km south of Son-Kul lake.
This reserve consists of two small protected areas: 1) Karatal-Zhapyryksky,
where flood-fir forests, alpine grasslands and other ecosystems that are
characteristic for the Inner Tien Shan are protected. 2) Son-Kul, is a
nesting place for a mountain goose - the kind that is listed in the Red
Book of Kyrgyzstan. Son-Kul lake is the largest freshwater natural reservoir
in the country. The lake is located in the middle of a powerful migration
channels connecting the nests of western Siberia birds, Altai, north-eastern
part of Kazakhstan with the wintering grounds in China, India, Pakistan
and Africa. Top
Kulunatinsky State Reserve. It was formed
in 2004 with a total area of 27,434.2 hectares in Kara-Gulja district of
Osh region. There is an enchantingly beautiful lake, Kulun, within this
reserve. The landscape of this reserve is mountainous and quite diverse.
There are about 600 species of useful wild flora. It is inhabited by 24
species of mammals, 81 species of birds and 808 species of plants. Top
Naryn State Reserve. Total area - 37,000 hectares.
It was founded in 1983 to protect the coniferous forests and alpine meadows.
The main objects of protection include Schrenk’s spruce and deer. This
reserve is the only place in the country that protects population of Semirechensk
deer (subspecies of the Tien Shan). In the tract of “Iyri-Suu” in 1986,
a breeding place was built to rehabilitate and increase population of
this species. This reserve contains a Museum of Nature, which is a base
for environmental education activities.
It is located in the eastern part of Naryn region in the upper reaches
of Naryn river. It starts from the point where Chon-Naryn and Kichi-Naryn
rivers merge together, 11 km to the east it occupies the northern slope
of the forest of Naryn-Toosk ridge. The goal is the preservation of natural
systems and endangered species of rare animals and plants of the eastern
Tien Shan. There are 50 species of animals, 100 bird species and 1,870
plants. Animal species include the following deer, argali, ibex, bear,
wolf, leopard, lynx, marten, squirrel, etc. Among plants there are spruce,
juniper, rose, rowan, currant and raspberry. Top
Padysha-Ata State Reserve. It was organised
in 2003. It is located in Aksy district, Jalal-Abad region, western Tien Shan
area, in the basin of Padysha-Ata river. The area of this reserve is 30,560
hectares. This reserve was established to preserve natural juniper forests
and the endemic of the country - Semenov fir and biodiversity in general.
Padysha- Ata reserve inhabits 31 species of mammals, 51 species of birds,
78 species of shrubs and 800 species of flora. Seven of these are plant
species, three of mammals and four species of birds that are listed in the
Red Book: Semenov fir, Greg’s tulip, snow leopard, bear, eagle and falcon-Balaban.
Sary-Chelek Biosphere Reserve. It is in Jalal-Abad
area, and it covers 23,868 hectares. Sary-Chelek reserve is one of the
most beautiful places in the world. It is located on the southern slopes
of Chatkal ridge (north-western part of the Jalal-Abad region) in the Arkyt
valley - a small mountain basin of about 550 km from Bishkek. Part of this
reserve is limited, from the north, by mountain chains of Chatkal range
with several peaks reaching heights of over 4,000 meters above sea level.
It was founded in 1959, but it is a Biosphere reserve since 1978. Its
goal is protection, investigation and enforcement of the good condition
of nut and fruit complexes as well as fauna. A unique natural complex
is guarded from the crest of the mountains to medium-high mountain steppes
in this reserve. It is only in this reserve that you can find unique, pure
forests of Semenov fir and thickets of Exochorda. There are 32 species of
tree, 80 species of shrubs and 886 herbaceous plants. This reserve is a home
to 41 species of mammals, 157 species of birds, 7 reptiles, 2 amphibians
and 3 species of fish. Animal variety, listed in the Red Book, includes deer,
mountain sheep, snow leopard, Turkestan lynx and brown bear. Marten and mink
were brought into this reserve in 1961; bison, fallow deer and red deer followed
There is also a sanctuary mausoleum, Padysha-Ata, on the premises of
this reserve. Top
Sary-Chelek lake is classed as the embellishment of this reserve, the
length of which is 7.5 km, it is 1.5 wide and 250 meters deep. This reserve
is intended to preserve the ecosystems of mid-part and high mountains of
western Tien Shan (altitude of 1,500-3,500 meters above sea level) including
nut-growing and fir forests, mountain steppe and lakes. There were many
endemic and relict species that survived here, living on the territory of
the western Tien Shan, and thus representing a high value on a global scale.
In 1979, UNESCO made a decision to include this reserve in the International
network of Biosphere Reserves. Top
Sarychat-Ertash State Reserve. It was founded
in 1995 and covers an area of 72,080 hectares. It is located in the upper
reaches of Uch-Kel river on Sarychat-Ertash syrty, on the territory of
Jeti-Oguz district of Issyk-Kul region. Its main objective is the protection
of ecosystems of high-mountain tops and syrty of Inner Tien Shan.
This reserve is one of the main habitats of the snow leopard, Pallas
cat, Tien Shan subspecies of mountain sheep, mountain goat, stone martens,
marmots and hares. The flora is represented by a fairly sparse herbaceous
vegetation, characteristic to those in high mountains. This reserve is
the only place in the country, where habitat of a wild cat, Pallas, is
known; it is listed in the International Red List of IUCN. There are many
rare birds of prey, and on the gravely floodplains, it is possible to find
rare breed of mountain snipe - Serpokluv. Top
Surmatash State Reserve. It was founded in
2009 in order to preserve the unique natural systems and biodiversity, protection
of rare and endangered species of flora and fauna. It is located in Kadamjai
district, Batken region. Total area of which is 66,194 hectares. Top
Biosphere territory “Issyk-Kul”. In September
2001, Biosphere territory “Issyk-Kul” was officially recognised by UNESCO
and has been incorporated into the World Network of Biosphere Reserves.
One of the main objectives of the biosphere reserve is an ecological-economic
development of the region, as well as conservation of biodiversity. Flora
of the biosphere has about 1,500 species of plants, rich in medicinal, aromatic,
tannic, honey, phytoncide plants from nearly 50 vegetation communities.
It is possible to come across 54 species of mammals, 9 of which are
listed as endangered in the Red Book of Kyrgyzstan. There are 267 species
of birds on this territory, 18 of which are listed in the Red Book of Kyrgyzstan
and 2 species are in the Red List of IUCN - Serpokluv and white-headed
duck. In the north, there are some petroglyphs representing an important
cultural and historical value including the remains of Buddhist culture.
State National Natural Parks - one of the main objectives
of National parks consists of providing tourism which will not harm the
Ala-Archa. Ala-Archa park (ala - “mottled,
speckled, striped”, archa - “juniper”) begins with the highest central part
of the Kyrgyz Ala-Too range and occupies Ala-Archa’s gorge that runs to the
north. It was established in 1976 in order to protect unique landscapes of
the park in Ala-Archa gorge, preserving its nature and creating conditions
for rest for those working there. The National park is rich in flora and fauna
with more than 800 species of plants and approximately 170 species of animals.
There is a goat, Marco Polo, wolves, bears, lynx, boars, eagles, snow leopard,
foxes and roe deer.
This National park stretches along the gorge for 15 km with elevations
in the range between 1,500 to 2,240 meters. Total area of the park is 19,400
hectares. It is 40 km from Bishkek city.
There is also a small Nature Museum on the premises. There is a ban
on certain things in this park: fishing, hunting, collection of berries,
flowers and herbs, catching butterflies and other insects, as well as visiting
Besh-Tash. It is located in Talas valley
in the central part of the northern slope of Talas Ala-Too. The park stretches
for 30 km up the river of Besh-Tash. Besh-Tash park was organised in 1996
to preserve unique natural systems and biodiversity of north-west Kyrgyzstan.
There are over 800 species of plants, 28 of which include trees and shrubs.
From the animal and bird side, there are deer, fox, marten, ermine, partridge,
snow leopard, Turkestan lynx, kumai, Baloban, saker falcon and others.
There is a rainbow trout in the Besh-Tash river. There are some objects
that are associated with the name of Manas. Its total area is 32,411 hectares.
Parking is only permitted in special parking areas or on roadsides.
Fireplace is only allowed in designated areas. It is prohibited to throw
cigarette butts as it may cause fire. All rubbish must be collected and placed
in rubbish containers after visiting. Top
Kara-Shoro. It was organised in 1966, and
occupies south-western slope of Fergana range, where there are mineral water
springs and well-preserved forests, and meadow plants. The vegetation is
represented by more than 800 species of flowering plants. Kara-Shoro park
has unique forests (spruce, walnut-fruit, juniper) characteristic to western
Tien Shan and Pamir-Alai mountain ranges and alpine meadow plants, shrubs,
among which there are different kinds of animals. The representatives from
the Red Book include Turkestan lynx, golden eagle and bearded vulture. Kara-Shoro
park is 8,450 hectares. This area is mostly occupied by pastures. Top
Karakol. It is located on the eastern part
of Issyk-Kul basin on the northern slope of Teskey Ala-Too. It was organised
in 1997 to preserve unique natural complexes of Karakol gorge. Its main
objectives are protection of plants and animals in the park, typical to the
north-east of Kyrgyzstan, as well as recreation of the population and foreign
tourists. The vegetative world represents 700 species, 80 of which include
trees and shrubs. Animal world is comprised of roe deer, ibex, fox, marten,
ermine, partridge and others encountered in the Red Book of Kyrgyzstan such
as snow leopard, kumai, saker falcon, bearded vulture and golden eagle.
The landscape of Karakol gorge is very picturesque, especially attractive
are the mountain lake of Ala-Kul and Karakol peak. Karakol park has developed
hiking and horseback riding trails. There are conditions made especially
for receiving tourists and a lift is also available in the park. The area
is 38,256 hectares, 4,767 hectares of which is forest. Top
Kyrgyz-Ata. It was established in 1992. It
occupies high-mountainous and mid-parts of northern slope of Alai range,
where well preserved unique juniper forests are distributed. The main
objectives are of course to protect plants and animals in the park, which
are characteristic to Pamir-Alai mountain system and recreation for the
population of the Fergana valley. The area of Kyrgyz-Ata is 1,172 hectares.
Kyrchin. It was formed in August 2004. It
is located in the Issyk-Kul district of Issyk-Kul region. The total area
of this National park is 35,000 hectares. Top
Saimaluu-Tash. It was established in 2001
in Toguz-Torouz district in eastern part of Jalal-Abad region along the
river Kurart. Its area is 32,000 hectares. The objects of protection include
unique natural complexes of Kugart tract and numerous petroglyphs (rock
drawings of the Bronze Age), which have a great cultural and historical
Salkyn-Tor. It was founded in 2001 in Naryn
region. It occupies 10,448 hectares. There are 4 types of mammals, 6 species
of birds, 10 species of insects and 2 species of plants growing in Salkyn-Tor
park that are listed in the Red Book of Kyrgyzstan. The territory of this
National park is of great importance in restoring the number of deer.
Sarkent. It is located in Lyailak district
of Batken region and its total area is 40,000 hectares. Top
Chon-Kemin. It is located in south-western
park of Chon-Kemin valley. The total area of this park is around 123,000 hectares.
It was established in 1997 in order to preserve natural systems, forests,
objects of flora and fauna world that posses special ecological and aesthetic
value. This includes almost all the forests of Kemin district. The main objectives
are the protection of unique habitats, naturally preserved and transformed
cultural landscapes, typical to northern Kyrgyzstan. Chon-Kemin park is also
used for recreational, educational, scientific and cultural purposes. The
vegetation here is represented by 700 species of higher plants, more than
80 of which are trees and shrubs. Animals include roe deer, ibex, argali,
marten, ermine, partridge, and also those listed in the Red Book of Kyrgyzstan
such as snow leopard, deer, Turkestan lynx, golden eagle, saker falcon, bearded
vulture and others. There is also a mausoleum, Shabdan baatyr, in this park.
“Ala-Archa” and “Kyrchin” are the responsibility of the President
of Kyrgyz Republic.